Avian Research

For information on identifying birds in flight, see Birds in the Air. Dr. Jeff Bennert. Link

For information on how windows are impacting birds and how to make simple changes to help protect thousands of birds, see Ensuring your windows are bird safe. Penn Jersey Cleaning Services. Link


Environmental control of the breeding success of rhinoceros auklets at Triangle Island, BC. 2011. Borstad. Marine Ecol Progress Series 424: 285-302 Link

Egg size is independent of variation in pre-breeding feather corticosterone in Cassin’s auklets during favorable oceanographic conditions. 2018. Studholme et al. General Compar Endrocrinology. Link


Aggressive behavior by Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) varies with anthropogenic disturbance to breeding habitat.  2015. Bhardwaj, M. et al. Wilson J of Ornithology 127(3): 421-431. Link.

Oak mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) is linked to microhabitat availability and avian diversity in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) woodlands. 2017. Pritchard et al. Botany. OTHER KEYWDS: Western bluebird Link


Grass management regimes affect grass- hopper availability and subsequently American crow activity at airports. 2015. Kennedy, L. and K. Otter. Human-Wildlife Interactions 9(1): 58-66. Link.

 European Starlings

Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it? 2015. Fowler, M. and T. Williams. Ecol and Evolution 5(17): 3585-3599. Link.

Social Cues Regulate Reciprocal Switching of Hypothalamic Dio2/Dio3 and the Transition Into Final Follicle Maturation in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). 2015. Perfito, N. et al. Endocrinology 156(2): 694-706. Link.

Mid-winter temperatures, not spring temperatures, predict breeding phenology in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris. 2015. Williams et al. Royal Society Open Sci. Link

Experimental reduction of haematocrit affects reproductive performance in European starlings. 2016. Fronstin, R. et al. Functional Ecol 30(3): 398-409. Link.


Age and sex identification from wings of sage-grouse. 2015. Braun, C. and M. Schroeder. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(1): 182–187. Link.

Habitat selection and use by sympatric, translocated greater sage-grouse and Columbian sharp-tailed grouse. 2015. Stonehouse, K. et al. J of Wildlife Mgmt 79(8): 1308–1326. Link.

Predators, predator removal, and sage-grouse: A review. 2017. Conover and Roberts. J Wildlife Mgmt. Link

Range-wide connectivity of priority areas for Greater Sage-Grouse: Implications for long-term conservation from graph theory. 2017. Crist et al. Condor. Link

Genetic recapture identifies long-distance breeding dispersal in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). 2017. Cross et al. Condor. Link

Sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research annual report for 2017. Hanser (editor). US Geological Survey.  PDF

Prioritizing actions for the recovery of endangered species: Emergent insights from Greater Sage-grouse simulation modeling. 2018. Heinrichs et al. Biol Conserv. Link

Sex in the Sagebrush: How New Research Can Help Protect Greater Sage-Grouse Mating Areas. 2018. Cross et al. US-FS, Rocky Mtn Research Stn, Sci You Can Use Bulletin. PDF

Laws Protecting the Sage Grouse in Alberta as Compared to Saskatchewan and the US. 2019. Jaremko. U Calgary, Cdn Instit Resources Law, Occasional Paper. Link

Optimizing the use of endangered species in multi-population collection, captive breeding and release programs. 2019. Heinrichs et al. Global Ecol and Conser. OTHER KEYWDS: Greater sage-grouse. Link


Management plan for the Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) in Canada. 2019. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Link


Geographic variation in morphometrics, molt, and migration suggests ongoing subspeciation in Pacific Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis fulva).

Streaked Horned Lark Habitat Characteristics. 2015. Anderson, H. and S. Pearson. Center for Natural Lands Mgmt and WA State Dept of Fish and Wildlife. Link.

Columbia River Streaked Horned Lark Surveys and Monitoring. 2017. Slater and Treadwell. Center for Natural Lands Mgmt. PDF


Breeding Status of Ancient Murrelets Attending Gathering Grounds Near Langara Island, BC, 1970–1971. 2015. Sealy, S. NW Naturalist 96(1): 87-92.

Habitat associations of Marbled Murrelets during the nesting season in near-shore waters along the Washington to California coast. 2015. Raphael, M. et al. J of Marine Systems 146: 117-125. Link.

Reproductive performance of Kittlitz’s Murrelet in a glaciated landscape, Icy Bay, Alaska, USA. 2015. Kissling, M. et al. Condor 117(2): 237-248. Link

Estimation of Coast-Wide Population Trends of Marbled Murrelets in Canada Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Model. 2015. Bertram, D. et al. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0134891. Link.

Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquuscolony attendance at Langara Island assessed using observer counts and radar in relation to time and environmental conditions. 2016. Major. Marine Ornithol. Link

Low breeding propensity and wide-ranging movements by marbled murrelets in Washington. 2017. Lorenz et al. J Wildlife Mgmt Link

Post-breeding movements of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus family groups, subsequent migration of adults and implications for management. 2017. Gaston et al. PLoS ONE. Link

First evidence of east–west migration across the North Pacific in a marine bird [Ancient murrelet]. 2015. Gaston. Ibis. Link

Declining Marbled Murrelet density, but not productivity, in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA. 2018. Lorenz and Raphael. Condor. Link


Distributional Changes in the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in North America from 1967 to 2008. 2015. Macías-Duarte, A. and C. Conway. J of Raptor Research 49(1): 75-83. Link.

Historical Northern Spotted Owl habitat and old-growth dry forests maintained by mixed-severity wildfires. 2015. Baker, W. Landscape Ecol 30(4): 655-666. Link.

Increasing Capture Frequency for Flammulated Owls and Northern Saw-whet Owls During Fall Migration. 2015. Pollock, J. et al. J of Raptor Research 49(1): 88-92. Link.

Roosting Habitat Use and Selection By Northern Spotted Owls During Natal Dispersal. 2015. Sovern, S. et al. J of Wildlife Mgmt 79(2): 254–262. Link.

Range-wide analysis of northern spotted owl nesting habitat relations. 2015. Loehle, C. et al. Forest Ecol and Mgmt 342: 8-20. Link.

Spatial patterns in hydrogen isotope ratios in feathers of Burrowing Owls from western North America. 2015. Macías-Duarte, A. and C. Conway. Auk 132(1): 25-36. Link.

Comparing the diet of Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in rural and urban areas of southwestern BC. 2014. Hindmarch, S. and J. Elliott. Cdn Field Naturalist 128(4): 393-399. Link.

The scientific basis for modeling Northern Spotted Owl habitat: A response to Loehle et al. (2015). 2015. Dunk, J. et al. Forest Ecol and Mgmt 358: 355-360. OTHER KEYWDS: listed spp. Link.

Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague. 2015. James, R. et al. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 15(9): 556-564. Link.

Removal of old nest material decreases reuse of artificial burrows by burrowing owls. 2015. Riding, C.  and J. Belthoff. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(3): 521–528. Link.

Range wide analysis of northern spotted owl habitat relations: Reply to comments. 2015. Loehle, C. and L. Irwin. Forest Ecol and Mgmt 358: 365-368. Link.

  • for above, original article by Loehle et al. in Forest Ecol and Mgmt Volume 342. Link.

Spotted Owl

Effects of Barred Owl (Strix varia) Removal on Population Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Washington and Oregon, 2015–18. 2019. Wiens et al. US-GS, Rpt. Link

Barred Owl Effects on Spotted Owl Resource Selection: A MetaAnalysis. 2020. Irwin et al. J Wildlife Mgmt. Link

Incorporating LiDAR metrics into a structure-based habitat model for a canopy-dwelling species [Spotted owl]. 2020. Hagar et al. Remote Sens of Environ. Link

Age Distribution of Red Tree Voles in Northern Spotted Owl Pellets Estimated from Molar Tooth Development. 2020. Marks- Fife et al. NW Sci. Link

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls. 2019. Jenkins et al. Condor. Link


Analysis of sensitivity and uncertainty in an individual-based model of a threatened wildlife species [Spotted owl]. 2015. Marcot et al. Natural Resource Modeling. Link

Estimating density of a territorial species [Northern spotted owl] in a dynamic landscape. 2017. Glenn et al. Landscape Ecol. Link

Public preferences for species conservation: choosing between lethal control, habitat protection and no action. 2017. Lute, M. and S. Attari. Environ Conserv  OTHER KEYWDS: Spotted owl, Barred owl. Link

Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion. 2016. Holm et al. Wildlife Society Bulletin. OTHER KEYWDS: Spotted owl. Link

Historical and current forest conditions in the range of the Northern Spotted Owl in south central Oregon, USA. 2017. Hagmann et al. Forest Ecol Mgmt. Link

Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2016 progress report. 2017. Wiens et al. US Geological Survey. PDF

The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps. 2015. Ackers et al. Remote Sensing of Environ. Link

Conflicting Perspectives on Spotted Owls, Wildfire, and Forest Restoration. 2017. Ganey et al. Fire Ecol. Link

Managing [historical and] emerging threats to spotted owls. 2018. Wan et al. J Wildlife Mgmt. Link

Observations of Notable Parental Behaviours of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina). 2017. Alston et al. Cdn Field Naturalist. Link

Barred owl habitat selection in west coast forests. 2018. Irwin et al. J Wildlife Mgmt. OTHER KEYWDS: Spotted owl. Link

Spatial and Temporal Patterns In Population Trends and Burrow Usage of Burrowing Owls In North America. 2018. Conway. J Raptor Research. Link

Breeding Dispersal By Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) In Idaho. 2018. Riding and Belthoff.  J Raptor Research. Link

Examination of Pesticide Exposure In Burrowing Owls Nesting In Agricultural And Nonagricultural Areas In the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho. 2018. Stuber et al. J Raptor Research. Link

A Review Of Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Literature Using Bibliometric Comparisons: Topical Bibliographies and Online Databases. 2018. Lincer et al. J Raptor Research. Link


Citizen science and field survey observations provide comparable results for mapping Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura saxatilis) distributions. 2015. Jackson, M. et al. Biol Conserv 181: 162-172. Link.


Kleptoparasitism by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) as a factor in reducing Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) predation on Dunlin (Calidris alpina) wintering in BC. 2015. Dekker, D. and M. Drever. Cdn Field Naturalist 129(2): 159164. Link  scroll down to “Download this pdf file”

Lead, Mercury, and DDE in the Blood of Nesting Golden Eagles in the Columbia Basin, Washington. 2015. Watson, J. and R. Davies. J of Raptor Research 49(2):  217-221.  NO URL

Guidelines for raptor conservation during urban and rural development on BC. 2013. Bently, M., M. Demarchi et al. Govt of BC, A companion document to Develop with Care (2012). Link.

Changing habitat use associated with distributional shifts of wintering raptors. 2015. Paprocki, N. et al. J of Wildlife Mgmt 79(3): 402–412. Link.

Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes. 2017. Talbot et al. PLoS ONE. Link


Biofilm Consumption and Variable Diet Composition of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) during Migratory Stopover. 2015. Jardine, C. et al. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0124164. Link


A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica). 2015. Hobson, K. et al. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0129340.  Link

Temporal and spatial patterns of flight and body feather molt of Bank, Barn, and Cliff swallows in North and South America. 2017. Imlay et al. J Field Ornithol. Link

US Interagency Special Status / Sensitive Species Program: Conservation Assessments.  2019. Various authors. US-FS PNW Region and US-BLM (Oregon and Washington).

  • Purple Martin. Rockwell.  Link


Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler. 2016. Flockhart et al. Avian Conserv Ecol. Link

Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis), in Alberta, Canada. 2016. Ball et al. Avian Conserv Ecol. Link

Forestry and conspecifics influence Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) habitat use and reproductive activity in boreal Alberta, Canada. 2017. Hunt et al. Condor. Link

Cultural isolation is greater than genetic isolation across an avian [warbler] hybrid zone. 2017. Kenyon et al. J Evol Biol. Link


Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest. 2015. Latif, Q. et al.  J of Wildlife Mgmt 79(2): 263–273. Link.

The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators. 2015. Lorenz, T. et al. Ecol Apps 25(4):1016–1033. Link

A Conservation Assessment for the White-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). 2013. Mellen-McLean, K. et al. US-FS PNW Region and US BLM. Link.

Space use by white-headed woodpeckers and selection for recent forest disturbances. 2015. Lorenz, T. et al. J of Wildlife Mgmt 79(8): 1286–1297. Link.

Between-Year Breeding Dispersal by White-Headed Woodpeckers: A Caution About Using Color Bands to Estimate Survival. 2016. Lorenz. NW Naturalist. Link

Simulations inform design of regional occupancy-based monitoring for a sparsely distributed, territorial species [White-headed woodpecker]. 2018. Latif et al. Ecol and Evol. Link

Veiled Polypore (Cryptoporus volvatus) as a Foraging Substrate for the White-Headed Woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). 2018. Watson and Shaw. NW Naturalist. Link



Can singing rate be used to predict male breeding status of forest songbirds [Olive-sided flycatcher]? A comparison of three calibration models. 2020. Upham-Mills et al. Ecosphere. Link

Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs. 2016. Ackerman et al. Environ Toxic Chem. OTHER KEYWDS: American avocet, Forster’s tern, Black-necked stilt Link

Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs. 2016. Ackerman et al. Environ Pollution. OTHER KEYWDS: American avocet, Forster’s tern, Black-necked stilt Link

Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds. 2015. Miller, A. et al. Sci of the Total Environ 502: 60-69. Link.

Variation in plasma corticosterone in migratory songbirds: A test of the Migration-Modulation Hypothesis. 2014. Wagner, D. et al. Physiolog and Biochem Zoology 87(5): 695-703. Link

Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: Additive genetic (co) Variances in female extra-pair reproductions and male paternity success in Song Sparrows melospiza melodia 2014. Reid, J. et al. Evolution 68: 2357-2370. Link

Lillooet Bird Names. 2015. Davis, H. and J. van Eijk. Anthro Linguistics 56(1): 78-99. Link

Do fluctuating water levels alter nest survivorship in (Columbia River) reservoir shrubs? 2015. van Oort, H. et al. Condor 117(3): 376-385. Link

Fire severity affects mixed broadleaf–conifer forest bird communities: Results for 9 years following fire. 2015. Stephens, J. et al. Condor 117(3): 430-446. Link

Searching for backyard birds in virtual worlds: Internet queries mirror real species distributions. 2015. Schueltz, J. et al. Biodiv and Conserv 24(5): 1147-1154. Link

Recreation changes the use of a wild landscape by corvids. 2015. Walker, L. and J. Marzluff. Condor 117(2): 262-283.  Link

Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction. 2015. Reid, J. et al. J of Animal Ecol 84(4): 1029–1040. Link

Bird species turnover is related to changing predation risk along a vegetation gradient. 2015. LaManna, J. et al. Ecology 96: 1670–1680. Link

How much is that birdie in my backyard? A cross-continental economic valuation of native urban songbirds. 2015. Clucas, B. et al. Urban Ecosystems 18(1): 251-256. Link.

Individual variation in workload during parental care: can we detect a physiological signature of quality or cost of reproduction? 2015. Williams, T. and M. Fowler. J of Ornthol 156(Supp 1): 441-451. Link.

Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence. 2015. Heinrichs, J. et al. Conserv Biol 29(6): 1674–1683. Link.

Using Ships of Opportunity to Assess Winter Habitat Associations of Seabirds in Subarctic Coastal Alaska. 2015. Dawson, N. et al. NW Sci 89(2): 111-128. Link.

Carotenoids increase immunity and sex specifically affect color and redox homeostasis in a monochromatic seabird [Black-legged kittiwake]. 2015. Leclair et al. Behav Ecol and Sociobiol. Link

Ticks parasitizing gallinaceous birds in Canada and first record of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) from California Quail. 2016. Scott et al. Systematic and App Acarology. Link

Searching for Black Swift (Cypseloides niger) Nests in Southern BC. 2017. Levesque and Rock. Cdn Field Naturalist. Link

Evaluating the efficacy of seasonal grazing and livestock exclusion as restoration tools for [Yellow-breasted chat] birds in riparian habitat of the Okanagan Valley, BC, Canada. 2017. Forrester et al. Restor Ecol. Link

Historical Breeding By Pelagic, Double-Crested, and Brandt’s Cormorants In the Salish Sea, 1891–1955. 2017. Carter. NW Naturalist. Link

Breeding Population Sizes, Distributions, and Trends of Pelagic, Double-Crested, and Brandt’s Cormorants in the Strait of Georgia, BC, 1955–2015. 2018. Carter et al. NW Naturalist. Link

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Chemically Dispersed Oil on Feather Structure and Waterfproofing in Common Murres (Uria aagle).

  1. Whitmer et al. J Wildlife Diseases. Link

Bandtailed pigeon use of supplemental mineral. 2018. Sanders and Koch. J Wildlife Mgmt. Link


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